Top 5 most popular journal articles of 2019
- Ryan, Richard M. and Edward L. Deci. “Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations: Classic Definitions and New Directions.” Contemporary Educational Psychology 25, no. 1 (2000): 54-67.
Intrinsic and extrinsic types of motivation have been widely studied, and the distinction between them has shed important light on both developmental and educational practices. In this review we revisit the classic definitions of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in light of contemporary research and theory. Intrinsic motivation remains an important construct, reflecting the natural human propensity to learn and assimilate. However, extrinsic motivation is argued to vary considerably in its relative autonomy and thus can either reflect external control or true self-regulation. The relations of both classes of motives to basic human needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness are discussed.
- Pham, Ngoc Thao, et al. “Perinatal Dioxin Exposure and Neurodevelopment of 2-Year-Old Vietnamese Children in the most Contaminated Area from Agent Orange in Vietnam.” Science of the Total Environment 678, no. Complete (2019): 217-26.
Bien Hoa airbase is the most contaminated area of dioxin contamination from Agent Orange in Vietnam, but little is known about the neurodevelopmental effects of perinatal dioxin exposure on children living nearby. We recruited 210 mother–newborn resident pairs in 2012 and 78 pairs in 2015 and followed them for 2 years to assess the children’s neurodevelopment. As a control group, we used 120 mother–child pairs recruited in 2014 in the Ha Dong district of Ha Noi City, an unexposed area. Perinatal dioxin exposure levels were indicated by levels of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and toxic equivalency values of polychlorodibenzodioxins, polychlorodibenzofurans, and nonortho-polychlorinated biphenyls (TEQ-PCDD/Fs/noPCBs) in maternal breast milk. The Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (Bayley-III) were used to assess neurodevelopment, and scores in each domain were compared between children with different exposure levels using general linear regression models and stratification by sex. Decreased expressive and composite language scores in boys and gross motor scores in girls were found in children exposed to TCDD ≥ 5.5 (pg/g lipid) compared with children with TCDD < 1.8. However, in matched pair analysis between children with TCDD ≥ 5.5 and <1.8 (pg/g lipid), lower expressive and composite language scores in boys exposed to TCDD ≥ 5.5 were significant, but lower gross motor scores in girls did not reach statistical significance. In addition, significant association was found between levels of PCDD congeners other than TCDD and gross motor scores in boys. These findings suggest that perinatal exposure of TCDD and other PCDD congeners affects development of language and gross motor skills, respectively, in boys at 2 years of age exposed to dioxins originating from Agent Orange in Vietnam.
- Postigo, Hector. “Capturing Fair Use for the YouTube Generation: The Digital Rights Movement, the Electronic Frontier Foundation and the User-Centered Framing of Fair use.” Information, Communication & Society 11, no. 7 (October 2008, 2008): 1008-27.
This article undertakes an analysis of strategic framing strategies in the Digital Rights Movement by the movement’s central Social Movement Organization (SMO), the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF). Through analysis of a series of interviews with key members of the EFF and analysis of the EFF’s ‘Endangered Gizmos’ campaign in response to the MGM vs Grokster case, this article shows how the organization strategically frames consumers as users’ and fair use in user-centered fashion. In so doing the EFF develops a legitimizing rationale for expanding consumer privileges in copyrighted works. The analysis shows that the user-centered notion of fair use articulates with broader historical and emerging trends in media consumption/use and thus finds accepting audiences both within the movement and outside of it.
- Beauregard, Eric and Melissa Martineau. “A Descriptive Study of Sexual Homicide in Canada: Implications for Police Investigation.” International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology 57, no. 12 (2013): 1454-76.
Few empirical studies have been conducted that examine the phenomenon of sexual homicide, and among these studies, many have been limited by small sample size. Although interesting and informative, these studies may not be representative of the greater phenomenon of sexual murder and may be subject to sampling bias that could have significant effects on results. The current study aims to provide a descriptive analysis of the largest sample of sexual homicide cases across Canada in the past 62 years. In doing so, the study aims to examine offender and victim characteristics, victim targeting and access, and modus operandi. Findings show that cases of sexual homicide and sexual murderers included in the current study differ in many aspects from the portrait of the sexual murderer and his or her crime depicted in previous studies. The authors’ results may prove useful to the police officers responsible for the investigation of these crimes.
- Griffith, Jane. “Of Linguicide and Resistance: Children and English Instruction in Nineteenth-Century Indian Boarding Schools in Canada.” Paedagogica Historica 53, no. 6 (December 2017, 2017): 763-82.
Indian residential schools lasted in Canada for nearly 150 years, with the last one closing in 1996. Canada’s recently concluded Truth and Reconciliation Commission has confirmed what Indigenous families have said all along: many Indigenous children endured abuse, prolonged separation between parent and child, and intergenerational legacies. Thousands of children died while attending school. Indian residential schools were one of Canada’s many colonial strategies, which aimed to inculcate students in a British world view and assimilate them by denigrating their spiritualities, epistemologies, and relationships to land. Indian residential schools also attacked Indigenous languages and insisted on English only. While historical studies of teaching English often elide a broader history of colonialism, this paper uses a settler colonial studies analysis to read nineteenth-century government reports as well as school newspapers to uncover how nineteenth-century Indian boarding schools publicly conceived of the teaching of English; my reading of nineteenth-century archival documents is informed by survivor testimony and memoir that help to puncture the propaganda of government and school documentation. Informed by the work of Wallace Lambert and Ruth Spack, I argue that school documentation represented English only rather than the more complicated understanding of English and – English in addition to Indigenous languages. This distinction critically separates the policies of government and school from the beliefs of many parents and children, who learned English for their own reasons but not at the expense of another language.
Top 5 most popular ebooks of 2019
- Sweetman, Sean C. Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference. Pharmaceutical Press, 2009.
- Back, Les, and John Solomos. Theories of Race and Racism: A Reader. Routledge, 2000.
- Abbott, Stephen. Understanding Analysis. Springer New York, 2015.
- Malcolmson, Patrick N., Thomas Michael Joseph Bateman, Richard M. Myers, and Gerald Baier. The Canadian Regime: An Introduction to Parliamentary Government in Canada. University of Toronto Press, 2016.
- Shindler, John. Transformative Classroom Management: Positive Strategies to Engage All Students and Promote a Psychology of Success. Jossey-Bass, 2010.
Top 5 most popular research datasets of 2019
- Optical Coherence Tomography Image Retinal Database: Normal Retinal OCT images
- Open access article processing charges Dataverse: Open access article processing charges May 2014
- Social Media Lab: The State of Social Media in Canada 2017
- Ontario Veterinary College Dataverse>Department of Pathobiology Dataverse: Evaluation of the fecal microbiota of horses with metabolic syndrome
- University of Toronto Map & Data Library Dataverse: PRS Group, International Country Risk Guide Researchers Dataset